Lambda Expressions

Lambda Expressions

p -> {
    return p.getGender() == Person.Sex.MALE
        && p.getAge() >= 18
        && p.getAge() <= 25;
//The following example, Calculator, is an example of lambda expressions
// that take more than one formal parameter:

public class Calculator {
    interface IntegerMath {
        int operation(int a, int b);   
    public int operateBinary(int a, int b, IntegerMath op) {
        return op.operation(a, b);
    public static void main(String... args) {
        Calculator myApp = new Calculator();
        IntegerMath addition = (a, b) -> a + b;
        IntegerMath subtraction = (a, b) -> a - b;
        System.out.println("40 + 2 = " +
            myApp.operateBinary(40, 2, addition));
        System.out.println("20 - 10 = " +
            myApp.operateBinary(20, 10, subtraction));    
  • One issue with anonymous classes is that if the implementation of your anonymous class is very simple, such as an interface that contains only one method, then the syntax of anonymous classes may seem unwieldy and unclear. In these cases, you're usually trying to pass functionality as an argument to another method, such as what action should be taken when someone clicks a button. Lambda expressions enable you to do this, to treat functionality as method argument, or code as data.
  • A lambda expression consists of the following: a comma-separated list of formal parameters enclosed in parentheses, the arrow token (->), a body which consists of a single expression or a statement block. .
  • Note that a lambda expression looks a lot like a method declaration; you can consider lambda expressions as anonymous methods—methods without a name.

Accessing Local Variables of the Enclosing Scope

import java.util.function.Consumer;

public class LambdaScopeTest {

    public int x = 0;

    class FirstLevel {

        public int x = 1;

        void methodInFirstLevel(int x) {
            // The following statement causes the compiler to generate
            // the error "local variables referenced from a lambda expression
            // must be final or effectively final" in statement A:
            // x = 99;
            Consumer<Integer> myConsumer = (y) -> 
                System.out.println("x = " + x); // Statement A
                System.out.println("y = " + y);
                System.out.println("this.x = " + this.x);
                System.out.println("LambdaScopeTest.this.x = " +



    public static void main(String... args) {
        LambdaScopeTest st = new LambdaScopeTest();
        LambdaScopeTest.FirstLevel fl = FirstLevel();
  • Like local and anonymous classes, lambda expressions can capture variables; they have the same access to local variables of the enclosing scope.
  • However, unlike local and anonymous classes, lambda expressions do not have any shadowing issues.
  • Lambda expressions are lexically scoped. This means that they do not inherit any names from a supertype or introduce a new level of scoping. Declarations in a lambda expression are interpreted just as they are in the enclosing environment.

Lambda Expressions — Structure map

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