# Traits

Domains:

As of PHP 5.4.0, PHP implements a method of code reuse called Traits.

Traits are a mechanism for code reuse in single inheritance languages such as PHP. A Trait is intended to reduce some limitations of single inheritance by enabling a developer to reuse sets of methods freely in several independent classes living in different class hierarchies. The semantics of the combination of Traits and classes is defined in a way which reduces complexity, and avoids the typical problems associated with multiple inheritance and Mixins.

A Trait is similar to a class, but only intended to group functionality in a fine-grained and consistent way. It is not possible to instantiate a Trait on its own. It is an addition to traditional inheritance and enables horizontal composition of behavior; that is, the application of class members without requiring inheritance.

Example #1 Trait example

<?php
trait ezcReflectionReturnInfo {
function getReturnType() { /*1*/ }
function getReturnDescription() { /*2*/ }
}

class ezcReflectionMethod extends ReflectionMethod {
use ezcReflectionReturnInfo;
/* ... */
}

class ezcReflectionFunction extends ReflectionFunction {
use ezcReflectionReturnInfo;
/* ... */
}
?>


### Precedence

An inherited member from a base class is overridden by a member inserted by a Trait. The precedence order is that members from the current class override Trait methods, which in turn override inherited methods.

Example #2 Precedence Order Example

An inherited method from a base class is overridden by the method inserted into MyHelloWorld from the SayWorld Trait. The behavior is the same for methods defined in the MyHelloWorld class. The precedence order is that methods from the current class override Trait methods, which in turn override methods from the base class.

<?php
class Base {
public function sayHello() {
echo 'Hello ';
}
}

trait SayWorld {
public function sayHello() {
parent::sayHello();
echo 'World!';
}
}

class MyHelloWorld extends Base {
use SayWorld;
}

$o = new MyHelloWorld();$o->sayHello();
?>


The above example will output:

Hello World!


Example #3 Alternate Precedence Order Example

<?php
trait HelloWorld {
public function sayHello() {
echo 'Hello World!';
}
}

class TheWorldIsNotEnough {
use HelloWorld;
public function sayHello() {
echo 'Hello Universe!';
}
}

$o = new TheWorldIsNotEnough();$o->sayHello();
?>


The above example will output:

Hello Universe!


### Multiple Traits

Multiple Traits can be inserted into a class by listing them in the use statement, separated by commas.

Example #4 Multiple Traits Usage

<?php
trait Hello {
public function sayHello() {
echo 'Hello ';
}
}

trait World {
public function sayWorld() {
echo 'World';
}
}

class MyHelloWorld {
use Hello, World;
public function sayExclamationMark() {
echo '!';
}
}

$o = new MyHelloWorld();$o->sayHello();
$o->sayWorld();$o->sayExclamationMark();
?>


The above example will output:

Hello World!


### Conflict Resolution

If two Traits insert a method with the same name, a fatal error is produced, if the conflict is not explicitly resolved.

To resolve naming conflicts between Traits used in the same class, the insteadof operator needs to be used to choose exactly one of the conflicting methods.

Since this only allows one to exclude methods, the as operator can be used to add an alias to one of the methods. Note the as operator does not rename the method and it does not affect any other method either.

Example #5 Conflict Resolution

In this example, Talker uses the traits A and B. Since A and B have conflicting methods, it defines to use the variant of smallTalk from trait B, and the variant of bigTalk from trait A.

The Aliased_Talker makes use of the as operator to be able to use B's bigTalk implementation under an additional alias talk.

<?php
trait A {
public function smallTalk() {
echo 'a';
}
public function bigTalk() {
echo 'A';
}
}

trait B {
public function smallTalk() {
echo 'b';
}
public function bigTalk() {
echo 'B';
}
}

class Talker {
use A, B {
}
}

class Aliased_Talker {
use A, B {
B::bigTalk as talk;
}
}
?>


Note:

Prior to PHP 7.0, defining a property in a class with the same name as in a trait would throw an E_STRICT if the class definition was compatible (same visibility and initial value).

### Changing Method Visibility

Using the as syntax, one can also adjust the visibility of the method in the exhibiting class.

Example #6 Changing Method Visibility

<?php
trait HelloWorld {
public function sayHello() {
echo 'Hello World!';
}
}

// Change visibility of sayHello
class MyClass1 {
use HelloWorld { sayHello as protected; }
}

// Alias method with changed visibility
// sayHello visibility not changed
class MyClass2 {
use HelloWorld { sayHello as private myPrivateHello; }
}
?>


### Traits Composed from Traits

Just as classes can make use of traits, so can other traits. By using one or more traits in a trait definition, it can be composed partially or entirely of the members defined in those other traits.

Example #7 Traits Composed from Traits

<?php
trait Hello {
public function sayHello() {
echo 'Hello ';
}
}

trait World {
public function sayWorld() {
echo 'World!';
}
}

trait HelloWorld {
use Hello, World;
}

class MyHelloWorld {
use HelloWorld;
}

$o = new MyHelloWorld();$o->sayHello();
$o->sayWorld(); ?>  The above example will output: Hello World!  ### Abstract Trait Members Traits support the use of abstract methods in order to impose requirements upon the exhibiting class. Caution A concrete class fulfills this requirement by defining a concrete method with the same name; its signature may be different. Example #8 Express Requirements by Abstract Methods <?php trait Hello { public function sayHelloWorld() { echo 'Hello'.$this->getWorld();
}
abstract public function getWorld();
}

class MyHelloWorld {
private $world; use Hello; public function getWorld() { return$this->world;
}
public function setWorld($val) {$this->world = $val; } } ?>  ### Static Trait Members Traits can define both static members and static methods. Example #9 Static Variables <?php trait Counter { public function inc() { static$c = 0;
$c =$c + 1;
echo "$c\n"; } } class C1 { use Counter; } class C2 { use Counter; }$o = new C1(); $o->inc(); // echo 1$p = new C2(); $p->inc(); // echo 1 ?>  Example #10 Static Methods <?php trait StaticExample { public static function doSomething() { return 'Doing something'; } } class Example { use StaticExample; } Example::doSomething(); ?>  ### Properties Traits can also define properties. Example #11 Defining Properties <?php trait PropertiesTrait { public$x = 1;
}

class PropertiesExample {
use PropertiesTrait;
}

$example = new PropertiesExample;$example->x;
?>


If a trait defines a property then a class can not define a property with the same name unless it is compatible (same visibility and initial value), otherwise a fatal error is issued. Before PHP 7.0.0, defining a property in the class with the same visibility and initial value as in the trait, raised an E_STRICT notice.

Example #12 Conflict Resolution

<?php
trait PropertiesTrait {
public $same = true; public$different = false;
}

class PropertiesExample {
use PropertiesTrait;
public $same = true; // Allowed as of PHP 7.0.0; E_STRICT notice formerly public$different = true; // Fatal error
}
?>

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